Also in the 1950's, another paradigm of education emerged in response to a shift in philosophy about the nature of knowledge. The constructivist paradigm viewed knowledge not as something that exists separately, that can be mapped onto learners but rather as something that is constructed by individuals.
Cognitive constructivism views learning as the process of constructing meaning; it is how people make sense of their experience. This was a radical shift form the objectivist assumptions of the behaviourist and cognitivist paradigms. Cognitive constructivists are still concerned with mental representations of learners; however the overall purpose of education is not only to acquire knowledge, but also to enable learners to create new knowledge, building on prior knowledge from past experiences.
knowledge is actively constructed, learning is presented as a process of active
discovery. The role of the teacher is to facilitate this discovery by providing
the necessary resources and by guiding learners as they attempt to assimilate
new knowledge to old and to modify the old to accommodate the new. Teachers
must take into account the knowledge that the learner currently possesses, their
stage of cognitive development, their cultural background, and their personal
history when deciding how to construct the curriculum and how to present,
sequence, and structure new material.